Introduction

The cause is the logical or scientific reason for an event that has occurred and effects to this cause are the consequences of that event.

Different Types of Causes

> Principal Cause: It is the most important reason behind the effect.

> Immediate Cause: It immediately precedes the effect. It may or may not be the principal cause.

> Common Cause: A cause may have more than one effect. In that case, it is the common cause of all those effects.

Your Turn:

Below in each of the questions are given two statements I and II. These statements may be either independent causes or may be effects of independent causes or a common cause. One of these statements may be the effect of the other statement. Read both the statements and decide which of the following answer choices correctly depicts the relationship between these two statements. 

Mark answer as:

A. Statement I is the cause and Statement II is the effect.

B. Statement II is the cause and Statement I is the effect.

C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes.

D. Both the statements I and II are the effects of independent causes.

E. Both the statements I and II are effects of a common cause.

Practice Exercise 1:

Statements:

I. James is a healthy boy.

II. His mother is very particular about the food he eats.

Since James’s mother takes care of what he eats, he is a healthy boy. Therefore, Statement II is the cause and Statement I is the effect. So, B is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 2:

Statements:

I. The prices of petroleum products dropped marginally last week.

II. The State Government reduced the tax on petroleum products last week.

Since the state government reduced the taxes on petroleum products last week, the prices of petroleum products dropped marginally. Therefore, Statement II is the cause and Statement I is the effect. So, B is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 3:

Statements:

I. Staff members of the university decided to go on strike in protest during the examinations.

II. The university administration made all the arrangements for smooth conduct of examination with the help of outsiders.

Since the staff members decided to go on strike, the administration made arrangements for the conduct of examination with the help of outsiders. Therefore, Statement I is the cause and Statement II is the effect. So, A is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 4:

Statements:

I. Drinking tea has a number of health benefits. A cup of the beverage can help slash the risk of developing cancer by shrinking tumors.

II. The new research has shown that black tea could help prevent cancer. The compound Theaflavin-2 which has antioxidant properties reduces the risk of some cancers as well as heart disease.

Since the compound Theaflavin-2 has antioxidant properties and it reduces the risk of some cancers as well as heart disease, drinking tea has a number of health benefits. Therefore, Statement II is the cause and Statement I is the effect. So, B is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 5:

Statements:

I. The government of state X decided to ban working of women in night shifts and also in the late evening hours.

II. The percentage of working women has a significant rise in the last one decade.

Both statements are the effects of independent causes. So, D is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 6:

Statements:

I. The prices of vegetables have been increased considerably during the summer.

II. There is a tremendous increase in the temperature during this summer thereby damaging crops greatly.

Since high temperature caused damage to the crops this summer, the prices of vegetables increased. Therefore, Statement II is the cause and Statement I is the effect. So, B is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 7:

Statements:

I. India has lost a staggering $ 462 billion in illicit financial flows due to tax evasion, crime and corruption post – Independence according to a report released by Washington-based Global Financial Integrity.

II. More than 40% of the FDIs to India originate from Mauritius. Mauritius has now agreed to negotiate and revise the existing Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) with India, as capital gains is exempted from tax in Mauritius and a Mauritian company cannot be taxed in India.

Clearly, both statements are the effects of independent causes. So, D is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 8:

Statements:

I. Police resorted to lathi-charge to disperse the unlawful gathering of a large number of people.

II. The citizen’s forum called a general strike in protest against the police atrocities.

Clearly, Statement I is the cause and Statement II is the effect. So, A is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 9:

Statements:

I. There has been a constant rise in the number of immigrants to the metropolis for the last many years.

II. The infrastructure of the metropolis is struggling to take care of its increasing population.

Clearly, Statement I is the cause and Statement II is the effect. So, A is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 10:

Statements:

I. The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers.

II. The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area.

Both the statements are the effects of a common cause, which is the frequent occurrence of thefts lately in the locality. So, E is the correct option.