Coding and Decoding Example 1: Each of the questions below consists of a question and two statements numbered I and II given below it. You have to decide whether the data provided in the statements are sufficient to answer the questions. Read both the statements.

How is ‘happy’ written in a code language?

I. ‘I happy today’ is written as ‘ke ne que’ and ‘today happy day’ is written as ‘ke joi ne’.

II. ‘I play’ is written as ‘qua pa’.

A. If the data in statement I alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement II alone are not sufficient to answer the question.

B. If the data in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement I alone are not sufficient to answer the question.

C. If the data either in statement I or in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question.

D. If the data even in both statements I and II together are not sufficient to answer the question.

E. If the data in both statements I and II together are necessary to answer the question.

From the first statement, we can infer that the code for ‘happy’ is either ‘ke’ or ‘ne’.

> We can’t infer anything about the code for ‘happy’ using the second statement.

So, the information provided in both statements is not sufficient to answer the question. Therefore, D is the correct option.

Coding and Decoding Example 2: Each of the questions below consists of a question and two statements numbered I and II given below it. You have to decide whether the data provided in the statements are sufficient to answer the questions. Read both the statements.

What is the color of white snow in a color code?

I. ‘Green’ is called ‘Black’, ‘Black’ is called Blue, and ‘Blue’ is called ‘Red’.

II. ‘Red’ is called ‘White’ and ‘White’ is called ‘Orange’.

A. If the data in statement I alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement II alone are not sufficient to answer the question.

B. If the data in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement I alone are not sufficient to answer the question.

C. If the data either in statement I or in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question.

D. If the data even in both statements I and II together are not sufficient to answer the question.

E. If the data in both statements I and II together are necessary to answer the question.

Color of white snow is white. From the second statement, we know that ‘white’ is called ‘orange’. Therefore, in this color code, the color of white snow is orange.

Statement I does not provide information regarding the color code of white. So, Statement II alone is sufficient to answer this question. Therefore, B is the correct option. 

Coding and Decoding Example 3: Study the following information and answer the questions given.

In a certain code language,

‘acting good to people’ is written as ‘te bh nk ms’,

‘artists liked to sing’ is written as ‘so kr ap te’,

‘good people are liked’ is written as ‘bh ms ru ap’,

‘artists are acting well’ is written as ‘nk ru kr zi’.

 1. What is the code for ‘to’ in the given code language?

A. te

B. Other than those given as options

C. kr

D. bh

E. su

 2. What may be the possible code for ‘street artists’ in the given code language?

A. co nk

B. zi ap

C. kr co

D. kr ms

E. nk ms

3. What is the code for ‘acting’ in the given code language?

A. zi 

B. so

C. te

D. ru

E. nk

4. If ‘sing pretty well’ is coded as ‘zi so od’ in the given code language, then what is the code for ‘pretty’?

A. ru

B. od

C. so

D. zi

E. Cannot be determined

5. In the given code language, what does the code ‘bh’ stand for?

A. artists

B. liked

C. are

D. either ‘good’ or ‘people’

E. either ‘acting’ or ‘to’

1. 

In the first and the second statement, the common word is ‘to’ and the common code word is ‘te’. This implies ‘to’ means ‘te’. Therefore, A is the correct option.

2.

-> Observing the second and the fourth statement, we can infer that the code for ‘artists’ is ‘kr’.

-> Since no statement contains the word ‘street’, so we can’t determine its code.

Clearly, C is the only correct option. This option contains the codes ‘kr’ and ‘co’. Since ‘co’ is not present in the statements given, it can be the possible code for ‘street’.

3. 

Observing the first and the fourth statement, we can infer that the code for ‘acting’ is ‘nk’. So, E is the correct option.

4.

-> Observing the second and the given statement, we can infer that the code for ‘sing’ is ‘so’.

-> Observing the fourth and the given statement, we can infer that the code for ‘well’ is ‘zi’.

 Therefore, in the first statement, pretty’ means ‘od’So, B is the correct option.

5.

Both ‘bh’ and ‘ms’ are present in the first and the third statements and the common words in these statements are ‘good’ and ‘people’. Since these codes are not present in other statements, therefore, ‘bh’ is either code for ‘good’ or ‘people’. So, D is the correct option.

Coding and Decoding Example 4: Study the following information and answer the questions given.

In a certain code language,

‘festival for women only’ is written as ‘pa ge bo xu’,

‘provide peace to women’ is written as ‘wr dl nj ge’,

‘women like to celebrate’ is written as ‘ge ct fx wr’,

‘celebrate peace in festival’ is written as ‘dl bo sv ct.

 1. What is the code for ‘celebrate’ in the given code language?

A. sv

B. wr

C. ct

D. dl

E. fx

 2. What may be the possible code for ‘provide idea’ in the given code language?

A. fx hy

B. xu bo

C. hy nj

D. nj xu

E. wr fx

3. What is the code for ‘women’ in the given code language?

A. bo 

B. xu

C. ct

D. Other than those given as options

E. ge

4. If ‘peace to mind’ is coded as ‘zg wr dl’ in the given code language, then what is the code for ‘mind in festival’?

A. zg bo dl

B. dl zg sv

C. bo sv zg

D. zg nj wr

E. sv wr bo

5. In the given code language, what does the code ‘pa’ stand for?

A. peace

B. Either ‘for’ or ‘only’

C. Either ‘women’ or ‘to’

D. celebrate

E. festival

1. 

In the third and the fourth statement, the common word is ‘celebrate’ and the common code word is ‘ct’. This implies ‘celebrate’ means ‘ct’. Therefore, C is the correct option.

2.

The word ‘provide’ is present only in the second statement.

-> Observing the second and the fourth statement, we can infer that the code for ‘peace’ is ‘dl’.

-> Observing the first and the second statement, we can infer that the code for ‘women’ is ‘ge’.

-> Observing the second and the third statement, we can infer that the code for ‘to’ is ‘wr’.

Therefore, in the second statement, the code for ‘provide’ is ‘nj’.

-> Since no statement contains the word ‘idea’, so we can’t determine its code.

Clearly, C is the only correct option. This option contains the codes ‘hy’ and ‘nj’. Since ‘hy’ is not present in the statements given, it can be the possible code for ‘idea’.

3. 

Code for ‘women’ is ‘ge’. So, E is the correct option.

4.

-> Since the code for ‘peace’ is ‘dl’ and that for ‘to’ is ‘wr’, therefore, in the given statement, the code for ‘mind’ is ‘zg’.

-> Observing the first and the fourth statement, we can infer that the code for ‘festival’ is ‘bo’.

-> The word ‘in’ appears only in the fourth statement. Its code is ‘sv’.

The correct option must contain the codes ‘zg’‘bo’ and ‘sv’So, C is the correct option.

5.

The codes ‘pa’ and ‘xu’ are present only in the first statement. The possible words for these codes are ‘for’ and ‘only’. Therefore, ‘pa’ is either code for ‘for’ or ‘only’. So, B is the correct option.