## Logical Reasoning Puzzles: Introduction

This section contains miscellaneous logical reasoning puzzles. You will gradually learn to solve these puzzles as you practice more and more questions. Let’s see some examples.

Tips: Read the clues carefully, and as you go through them, make their visual representation so that you don’t have to read them again.

Logical Reasoning Puzzles Question 1: Read the text and the statements carefully and answer the questions.

Four people of different nationalities live on the same side of a street in four houses each of different colors. Each person has a different favorite drink. The following additional information is also known

(i) The Englishman lives in the red house.

(ii) The Italian drinks tea.

(iii) The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left.

(iv) The one living in the second house from the right drinks milk.

(v) The Norwegian lives adjacent to the blue house.

(vii) Tea is drunk in the blue house.

(viii) The white house is to the right of the red house.

(ix) Coca is drunk in the yellow house.

1. Milk is drunk by

A. Norwegian

B. Englishman

C. Italian

D. None of these

2. The Norwegian drinks

A. milk

B. coca

C. tea

D. fruit juice

3. The color of Norwegian’s house is

A. yellow

B. white

C. blue

D. red

4. Which of the following is not true?

A. Milk is drunk in the red house.

B. Italian lives in the blue house.

C. The Spaniard lives in a corner house.

D. The Italian lives next to the Spaniard.

Solution:

> Clues (iii), (iv), (v) and (vii): The Norwegian lives in the first house on the left. The one living in the second house from the right drinks milk. The Norwegian lives adjacent to the blue house. Tea is drunk in the blue house.

> Remaining Clues: The Italian drinks tea. The Englishman lives in the red house. The white house is to the right of the red house. The Spaniard drinks fruit juice. Coca is drunk in the yellow house.

1. Milk is drunk by Englishman. So, B is the correct option.

2. The Norwegian drinks Coca. So, B is the correct option.

3. The color of Norwegian’s house is Yellow. So, A is the correct option.

4. The Englishman, not Italian lives next to the Spaniard. So, D is the correct option.

Logical Reasoning Puzzles Question 2: Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below.

Five friends Amol, Mandar, Piyu, Shashi, and Reena attended Sagar’s birthday party, where they partook of the sumptuous snacks and dinner. Each of the five friends gifted Sagar a different article – a fountain pen, a cellphone, a shirt, a jacket, and an I-Pod. Sagar, in return, gifted each of them a different article – a video game, a sweater, a perfume, a calculator, and a pair of sunglasses. The following is additional information given by the friends and the gifts received from Sagar:

> Amol gifted the shirt and received a video game in return.

> Shashi did not gift the I-Pod and he received the perfume in return.

> Mandar did not gift an electronic item and received the calculator in return.

> The person who gifted Jacket received the sweater in return.

> Rana received a pair of sunglasses.

1. Who among the following gifted Jacket?

A. Mandar

B. Shashi

C. Reena

D. None of these

2. Which of the following statements is true?

A. Two of the friends who did not gift electronic items received electronic items in return.

B. Piyu gifted the jacket and Shashi gifted the I-Pod.

C. Shashi neither gifted nor did she receive an electronic item.

D. The person who gifted the cellphone received the calculator in return.

3. Which of the following is the correct combination of friend, article gifted and article received in return?

A. Piyu – Fountain Pen – Sunglasses

B. Shashi – I-Pod – Perfume

C. Reena – I-Pod – Sunglasses

D. None of the above

4. Which of the following statement is false?

A. There is only one friend whose name does not start with a vowel and received an electronic item in return.

B. The friend whose name appears last in alphabetical order gifted an electronic item and received a non-electronic item in return.

C. In alphabetical order, the friend who gifted the I-Pod appears before at least two other friends.

D. The friend whose name in alphabetical order appears in the middle neither gifted nor received an electronic item.

Solution:

Let’s use the direct clues first.

> Amol gifted the shirt and received a video game in return. Shashi received the perfume in return. Mandar received the calculator in return. Rana received the pair of sunglasses.

Now let’s use other clues.

> The person who gifted Jacket received the sweater in return.

This person must be Piyu.

> Mandar did not gift an electronic item. Shashi did not gift the I-Pod.

This implies Reena must have gifted the I-Pod and Shashi must have gifted the calculator. Therefore, Mandar must have gifted the fountain pen.

1. Piyu gifted jacket. So, D is the correct option.

2. Amol gifted shirt and received a video game in return. Mandar gifted fountain pen and received a calculator in return. So, A is the correct option.

3. Reena gifted I-Pod and received a pair of sunglasses in return. So, C is the correct option.

4. Let’s analyze each statement.

A. There is only one friend whose name does not start with a vowel and received an electronic item in return.

Only Amol and Mandar received an electronic item in return. So, Mandar is the only person whose name does not start with a vowel and received an electronic item in return. Hence, this statement is correct.

B. The friend whose name appears last in alphabetical order gifted an electronic item and received a non-electronic item in return.

Shashi gifted cellphone and received perfume in return. So, this statement is also correct.

C. In alphabetical order, the friend who gifted the I-Pod appears before at least two other friends.

Reena gifted I-Pod and in alphabetical order, her name would appear at the second-last position. So, this statement is not true.

D. The friend whose name in alphabetical order appears in the middle neither gifted nor received an electronic item.

In alphabetical order, Piyu appears in the middle, and she gifted jacket and received a sweater in return. So, this statement is also correct.

Therefore, C is the correct option.

Logical Reasoning Puzzles Question 3: Read the following information carefully and answer the questions based on that.

Each of the five people – A, B, C, D, and E owns a different car among Maruti, Mercedes, Sierra, Fiat, and Audi and the colors of these cars are Black, Green, Blue, White, and Red, not necessarily in that order. No two cars are of the same color. It is also known that

(i) A’s car is not black and it is not Mercedes.

(ii) B’s car is not green and it is not a Sierra.

(iii) E’s car is not white and it is not an Audi.

(iv) C’s car is a Mercedes and it is not Blue.

(v) D’s car is not Red and it is a Fiat.

1. If A owns a Blue Sierra, then E’s car can be a

A. Red Maruti

B. White Maruti

C. Black Audi

D. Red Audi

2. If A owns a White Audi, then E’s car can be a

A. Red Maruti

B. Blue Maruti

C. Green Audi

D. Black Sierra

Solution:

1. A owns a Blue Sierra.

A -> Blue Sierra

B ->

C -> Mercedes

D -> Fiat

E ->

E’s car is not an Audi. This implies E’s car is Maruti and B’s car is Audi. Also, E’s car is not white. Therefore, E’s car can be Red Maruti. So, A is the correct option.

2. A owns a White Audi.

A -> White Audi

B ->

C -> Mercedes

D -> Fiat

E ->

B’s car is not a Sierra. This implies E’s car is Sierra and B’s car is Maruti. Therefore, D is the correct option.

Let’s practice what we have learned. Read the following information and answer the questions.

Logical Reasoning Puzzles Question 4: Amar, Akbar, and Anthony came from the same public school in the Himalayas. Every boy in that school either fishes for trout or plays frisbee. All fishermen like snow, while no frisbee player likes the rain. Amar dislikes whatever Akbar likes and likes whatever Akbar dislikes. Akbar likes rain and snow. Anthony likes whatever the other two like. Who is a fisherman but not a frisbee player?

A. Amar

B. Akbar

C. Anthony

D. More than one of the three boys

> All fishermen like snow, while no frisbee player likes the rain. Akbar likes rain and snow.

Since Akbar likes rain, he can’t be a frisbee player. He likes snow. Therefore, he must be a fisherman.

> Amar dislikes whatever Akbar likes and likes whatever Akbar dislikes.

This implies Amar does not like rain as well as snow. Therefore, he must be a frisbee player.

> Anthony likes whatever the other two boys like.

This implies Anthony likes rain and snow. Therefore, like Akbar, he must also be a fisherman.

Both Akbar and Anthony are a fisherman. So, D is the correct option.