An assumption is a fact or an opinion, based on which we make a statement.
Consider the statement: “One should sleep at least six hours a day.”
It is based on the assumption that sleeping less than six hours a day is not good for health.
If an assumption is implied in the statement, negating it weakens the argument of the statement. For example, if the assumption “Sleeping less than six hours a day is not good for health” is false, then the argument of the statement “One should sleep for at least six hours a day” gets weakened.
In “Statement and Assumptions” questions, we are given a statement which is followed by two or more assumptions. Based on the information provided in the statement, we need to decide which of the given assumptions are implied in the statement.
In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.
Mark answer as:
A. If only assumption I is implicit
B.If only assumption II is implicit
C. If either I or II is implicit
D. If neither I nor II is implicit
E. If both I and II are implicit
Practice Exercise 1:
Statement: The doctor warned the patient against any further consumption of alcohol if he desired to get cured from the ailment and live a longer life.
I. The patient may follow the doctor’s advice and stop consuming alcohol.
II. The doctor may be able to cure the patient from the ailment if the patient stops consuming alcohol.
The doctor gave the advice assuming the patient may follow it and stop consuming alcohol so that it might be possible to cure the patient. So, both assumptions are implicit. Therefore, E is the correct option.
Practice Exercise 2:
Statement: Please switch off your mobile phones while you are in class”, a notice out the classroom in ABC.
I. Every student of ABC keeps mobile phones.
II. Switched on mobile phones might distract the atmosphere of the class.
Practice Exercise 3:
Statement: Nobita’s mother instructed him to return home by train if it rains heavily.
I. Nobita may not be able to decide himself if it rains heavily.
II. The trains may ply even if it rains heavily.
Nobita’s mother has instructed him as a matter of caution and out of care for her child, and not because Nobita himself would not be able to decide. So, the first assumption is not implicit. Besides, Nobita’s mother instructs him to take to train journey in case it rains heavily. So, the second assumption is implicit. Therefore, B is the correct option.
Practice Exercise 4:
Statement: A advises B – “If you want to study English, join institute Y.”
I. B listens to A’s advice.
II. Institute Y provides good coaching for English.
A would advise B assuming he would listen to him. Also, he would recommend institute Y to study English only if he believes that institute Y provides good coaching for English. So, both assumptions are implicit. Therefore, E is the correct option.
Practice Exercise 5:
Statement: If it does not rain throughout this month, most farmers would be in trouble this year.
I. Timely rain is essential for farming.
II. Most of the farmers are generally dependent on rain.
Practice Exercise 6:
Statement: “Invest in our regular scheme and earn an interest of at least 10%” – Advertisement by a financial institution.
I. 10% interest may attract a good number of investors.
II. No other scheme offers interest as high as 10%.
Practice Exercise 7:
Statement: Peter invited all his friends to his house for dinner on his birthday and requested his mother to arrange for the birthday party.
I. Most of Peter’s friends may attend his birthday party.
II. Peter’s mother may be able to make all the arrangements including food for all his friends.
Peter has invited his friends by assuming most of his friends will attend the party and also his mother will make this arrangement. So, both assumptions are implicit. Therefore, E is the correct option.
Practice Exercise 8:
Statement: Children are influenced more their teachers these days.
I. The children consider teachers as their models.
II. A large amount of children’s time is spent in school.
The statement assumes that children consider teachers as their models. That is why they are more influenced by their teachers. It is not necessary that the children are influenced by teachers because they spend much time in school. So, only the first assumption is implicit. Therefore, A is the correct option.
Practice Exercise 9:
Statement: The X-Airlines has decided to increase the passenger fare by 15% with immediate effect.
I. The demand for seats of X-Airlines may remain unchanged even after the hike of fare.
II. Other airline companies may also hike passenger fares.
Clearly, such decisions are taken only after making sure that it will not affect the company’s business adversely. So, the first assumption is implicit. However, the impact of this increase on other airlines cannot be ascertained. So, the second assumption is not valid. Therefore, A is the correct option.
Practice Exercise 10:
Statement: Please consult me before making any decision on exports from the company.
I. You may take a wrong decision if you don’t consult me.
II. It is important to take the right decision.
The speaker wants to be consulted before the listener makes a decision. This implies he thinks the listener might take a wrong decision without his consultation. He would not have said so if it was not important to take the right decision. So, both assumptions are implicit. Therefore, E is the correct option.