In each of the following questions, a statement is followed by two conclusions. You have to take the given statement to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. Based on the information provided in the statement, decide which of the given conclusions logically follow beyond a reasonable doubt.

Mark answer as:

A. If only conclusion I follows

B. If only conclusion II follows

C. If either I or II follows

D. If neither I nor II follows

E. If both I and II follow

Practice Exercise 1:

Statement: Prime Minister emphatically stated that his government would make every possible effort for the upliftment of poor farmers and farmhands.

Conclusions:

I. Except poor farmers and farmhands, all others have got benefits of fruits of development.

II. No serious efforts have been made for the upliftment of any section of the society.

The statement only talks about poor farmers and farmhands, and hence nothing can be inferred about any other section of society. So, neither of the conclusions follows from the given statement. Therefore, D is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 2:

Statement: Company X has marketed the product. Go ahead; purchase it if price and quality are your considerations.

Conclusions:

I. The product must be good in quality.

II. The price of the product must be reasonable.

According to the statement, those who want a good quality product at a reasonable price should buy the product of company X. So, both the conclusions follow. Therefore, E is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 3:

Statement: The nation ‘X’ faced the increased international opposition due to its decision of performing eight nuclear explosions.

Conclusions:

I. The citizens of the nation have favored the decision.

II. Some powerful nations do not want that others may become powerful.

The statement does not mention the reason for the opposition from the other countries. Also, it does not state whether the citizens favored the decision or not. So, neither of the conclusions follows from the given statement. Therefore, D is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 4:

Statement: Sealed tenders are invited from competent contractors experienced in executing construction jobs.

Conclusions:

I. Tenders are invited only from experienced contractors.

II. It is difficult to find experienced contractors in construction jobs.

Only the first conclusion is valid. The statement does not mention if it is difficult to find experienced contractors in construction jobs. Therefore, A is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 5:

Statement: Animals live on oxygen.

Conclusions:

I. Plants do not live on oxygen.

II. Anything that needs oxygen is bound to be an animal.

Neither of the conclusions follows from the given statement. So, D is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 6:

Statement: Quality has a price tag. India is allocating lots of funds to education.

Conclusions:

I. Quality of education in India would improve soon.

II. Funding alone can enhance the quality of education.

The statement implies that funding is necessary to improve quality. Since India is allocating lots of funds to education, its quality of education would improve soon. The statement does not imply that funding alone is sufficient to enhance the quality of education. So, only the first conclusion is valid. Therefore, A is the correct option.

Consider another example: “The quality of air can be improved with afforestation.”

This statement does not imply that only afforestation can improve the quality of air. But it does imply that if we plant more trees, the quality of air would get improved.

Practice Exercise 7:

Statement: A friend in need is a friend indeed.

Conclusions:

I. All are friends in good times.

II. Enemies in bad times are not friends.

The statement implies that only those friends who help in the time of need are true friends. It does not imply either of the given conclusions. So, D is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 8:

Statement: The standard of education in private schools is much better than that in government schools.

Conclusions:

I. The government schools should make serious efforts to improve the standard of education.

II. The government schools should be closed immediately.

Closing the schools is not the solution to the problem, rather efforts should be made to improve the quality of education in the government schools. So, only the first conclusion follows. Therefore, A is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 9:

Statement: All the organized persons find time for rest. Sunita, in spite of her busy schedule, finds time for rest.

Conclusions:

I. Sunita is an organized person.

II. Sunita is an industrious person.

Since Sunita finds time for rest, she is an organized person. Since she has a busy schedule, she is also an industrious person. So, both the conclusions follow. Therefore, E is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 10:

Statement: Vegetable prices are soaring in the market.

Conclusions:

I. Vegetables are becoming a rare commodity.

II. People cannot eat vegetables.

Just because the prices of the vegetables are soaring, we can’t say that they are becoming a rare commodity. So, the first conclusion does not follow. The second conclusion is not related to the statement. So, it does not follow as well. Therefore, D is the correct option.