Introduction

Consider the statement: “All the students of this class have gone for a picnic. James is one of the students in this class.”

From the above statement, we can conclude that James has gone on a picnic with his classmates.

In “Statement and Conclusions” questions, we are given a statement which is followed by some conclusions. Based on the information provided in the statement, we need to decide which of the given conclusions can be drawn from the statement.

Your Turn:

In each of the following questions, a statement is followed by two conclusions. You have to take the given statement to be true even if it seems to be at variance from commonly known facts. Based on the information provided in the statement, decide which of the given conclusions logically follow beyond a reasonable doubt.

Mark answer as:

A. If only conclusion I follows

B. If only conclusion II follows

C. If either I or II follows

D. If neither I nor II follows

E. If both I and II follow

Practice Exercise 1:

Statement: Unemployment is one of the main reason for the poverty of the country.

Conclusions:

I. To end poverty, it is required to create employment opportunities.

II. All the people in the country are unemployed.

Since unemployment is one of the main reason for the poverty of the country, employment opportunities have to be created to end poverty. So, the first conclusion follows. It would be wrong to conclude that all the people in the country are unemployed. Therefore, A is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 2:

Statement: India is the largest exporter of Litchi.

Conclusions:

I. India only exports Litchi.

II. China and Japan are the most important customers of Litchi from India.

Just because India is the largest exporter of Litchi, does not mean that India only exports Litchi. The statement does not convey any information about the countries importing Litchi from India. So, neither of the conclusions follows from the given statement. Therefore, D is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 3:

Statement: A room with flowers look beautiful.

Conclusions:

I. Flowers are grown for decoration of rooms.

II. A room without flowers looks ugly.

Neither of the conclusions follows from the given statement. So, D is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 4:

Statement: Industries destroy natural resources.

Conclusions:

I. All the natural resources are destroyed by industries.

II. No industries, no environmental pollution.

According to the statement, Industries is one of the reasons behind the destruction of natural resources. So, neither of the conclusions follow. Therefore, D is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 5:

Statement: Anyone who manages an engineering organization like Tata Motors can only be successful if he has the knowledge of the professional work that is carried on in the organization.

Conclusions:

I. If you want to run any company, it is essential that you know the professional work associated with it.

II. In order to manage an engineering organization like Tata Motors, it is essential to have an engineering education background.

The statement is about engineering organizations. The first conclusion is generalizing the statement for all the companies. So, it does not follow. For a person to have the knowledge of professional work in an engineering organization, he needs to have an engineering education background. So, the second conclusion is valid. Therefore, B is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 6:

Statement: India has great potential for consumer products.

Conclusions:

I. Inflation is curbing demand for consumer products.

II. A very large population of the country has a great appetite for consumer products.

The statement does not discuss the impact of inflation on demand for consumer products. It does imply that a very large population of the country has a great appetite for consumer products. So, only the second conclusion is valid. Therefore, B is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 7:

Statement: Players who break various records in a fair way get a special prize. Player X broke the world record but was found to be under the influence of a prohibited drug.

Conclusions:

I. X will get the special prize.

II. X will not get the special prize.

Since the player X was found to be under the influence of a prohibited drug, which is an unfair means, he won’t get the prize even though he broke the record. Therefore, B is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 8:

Statement: Prostitution is also one of the main reason of AIDS.

Conclusions:

I. AIDS is an incurable disease.

II. AIDS cannot be completely controlled by banning prostitution only.

The given statement implies that apart from prostitution, there other reasons for spreading AIDS. Therefore, AIDS cannot be controlled completely by banning prostitution only. The statement does not discuss whether AIDS is curable or not. So, only the second conclusion follows. Therefore, B is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 9:

Statement: A neurotic is a non-stupid person who behaves stupidly.

Conclusions:

I. Neuroticism and stupidity go hand in hand.

II. Normal persons behave intelligently.

Since a neurotic is a non-stupid person who behaves stupidly, therefore neuroticism and stupidity go hand in hand. So, the first conclusion follows. The statement does not discuss the behavior of the normal person. So, the second conclusion is not valid. Therefore, A is the correct option.

Practice Exercise 10:

Statement: Sun is the source of light.

Conclusions:

I. Moon is not the source of light.

II. Light has only source.

Neither of the conclusions follows from the given statement. So, D is the correct option.