## Syllogism Practice Questions

In this section we will go through some examples to have a better insight into solving these problems.

In the questions below some statements are given and these statements are followed by some conclusions. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

Syllogism Practice Question 1:

Statements:

Some apples are oranges.

Some oranges are bananas.

Some bananas are grapes.

Conclusions:

I. Some bananas are oranges.

II. Some bananas are apples.

We can draw the Venn diagram representation of the statements as shown: Since both the given conclusions are definite in nature and don’t complement each other, we don’t need to consider other possible relations between the elements while drawing the Venn Diagram.

Now let’s see which of the conclusions are correct:

I. Some bananas are oranges.

As we can see in the Venn diagram, it is true that some bananas are oranges. So, this conclusion follows.

II. Some bananas are apples.

It is clear from the Venn Diagram that this conclusion does not follow.

Therefore, only I is the correct conclusion.

Syllogism Practice Question 2:

Statements:

Some players are singers.

All singers are tall.

Conclusions:

I. Some players are tall.

II. All players are tall.

We can draw the Venn diagram representation of the statements as shown: As in the previous exercise, we don’t need to consider other possible relations between the elements while drawing the Venn Diagram.

Now let’s see which of the conclusions are correct:

I. Some players are tall.

As we can see in the Venn diagram, it is true that some players are tall. So, this conclusion follows.

II. All players are tall.

Clearly, this conclusion does not follow.

Therefore, only conclusion I follows.

Syllogism Practice Question 3:

Statements:

All jungles are lions.

Some lions are tigers.

Conclusions:

I. Some tigers are jungles.

II. No tiger is jungle.

We can draw the Venn diagram representation of the statements as shown: In this exercise the given conclusions complement each other, so we need to consider other possible relations between tigers and jungles. There is a possibility that some tigers might be jungles as well. We have represented this possibility with a dotted circle in the Venn diagram.

Now let’s see which of the conclusions are correct:

I. Some tigers are jungles.

As we can see in the Venn Diagram, this is a probable conclusion. It excludes the possibility of no tiger being a jungle. So, this conclusion does not follow.

II. No tiger is jungle.

Again, this is a probable conclusion. It excludes the possibility of some tigers might be jungles. So, this conclusion does not follow as well.

Since, both the conclusions are probable as well as complement each other, so either of these conclusions follows.

Syllogism Practice Question 4:

Statements:

Some leaves are skies.

Some skies are clouds.

No cloud is a boat.

Conclusions:

I. Some boats are definitely leaves.

II. Atleast some clouds are leaves.

III. All skies being leaves is a possibility.

IV. No leaf is a boat.

We can draw the Venn diagram representation of the statements as shown: Note that in the case of “No A is B” type premise, we must consider possible relations between ‘B’ and the elements of other propositions.

Now let’s see which of the conclusions are correct:

I. Some boats are definitely leaves.

As we can see in the Venn Diagram, this is a probable conclusion. It excludes the possibility of no leaf being a boat. So, this conclusion does not follow.

II. Atleast some clouds are leaves.

Clearly, this conclusion does not follow.

III. All skies being leaves is a possibility.

Since some leaves are skies, all skies being leaves is possible. So, this conclusion follows.

IV. No leaf is a boat.

This is a probable conclusion. It excludes the possibility of some leaves might be boats. So, this conclusion does not follow.

Since both I and IV conclusions are probable as well as complement each other, therefore either I or IV and III follow.

Syllogism Practice Question 5:

Statements:

All parrots are pigeons.

All sparrows are parrots.

All eagles are sparrows.

Conclusions:

I. All pigeons are sparrows.

II. All sparrows are pigeons.

III. All eagles are pigeons.

IV. All eagles are parrots.

We can draw the Venn diagram representation of the statements as shown: Now let’s see which of the conclusions are correct:

I. All pigeons are sparrows.

Clearly, this conclusion does not follow.

II. All sparrows are pigeons.

As we can see in the Venn diagram, this circle representing sparrows lies within the circle representing pigeons. So, this conclusion follows.

III. All eagles are pigeons.

Clearly, this conclusion follows as well.

IV. All eagles are parrots.

This is also a correct conclusion.

Therefore, II, III and IV are the correct conclusions.

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